Linux VPS通过安装CurlFtpFS来挂载FTP,可用来备份文件

1、安装CurlFtpFS

Debian/Ubuntu系统

apt-get install curlftpfs -y

2、挂载FTP

创建目录,路径及名称自己定

mkdir /home/ftp

挂载FTP

curlftpfs ftp.yourserver.com /home/ftp -o user=username:password

ftp.yourserver.com #FTP地址
/home/ftp #本地目录
username #FTP用户名
password #FTP密码

输入df -h命令查看下是否挂载成功。
最后可以将文件上传至本地文件夹/home/ftp进行备份了。

如果在挂载的时候出现如下错误:
fuse: mountpoint is not empty
fuse: if you are sure this is safe, use the ‘nonempty’ mount option
最简单的解决方法就是让挂载的本地目录变成空文件夹即可。

张贴在<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/category/linux" rel="category tag">菜鸟Linux笔记</a> 标签:<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/curlftpfs" rel="tag">CurlFtpFS</a> 发表回复

bash: fdisk: command not found

You have to add /sbin to your PATH:

PATH=”/sbin:$PATH”
vagrant@stretch:~$ command -v fdisk /sbin/fdisk

张贴在<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/category/linux" rel="category tag">菜鸟Linux笔记</a> 标签:<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/fdisk" rel="tag">fdisk</a> 发表回复

debian9 mysql-server-5.7

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/checking-gpg-signature.html
或者
—–BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK—–
Version: GnuPG v1

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=ghXk
—–END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK—–

保存为mysql_pubkey.asc
shell> gpg –import mysql_pubkey.asc
shell> sudo apt-key add mysql_pubkey.asc

wget http://repo.mysql.com/mysql-apt-config_0.8.13-1_all.deb

wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-apt-config_0.8.8-1_all.deb

sudo dpkg -i mysql-apt-config_*_all.deb

apt update && apt upgrade

apt install mysql-server

systemctl restart mysql

mysql_secure_installation

张贴在<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/category/linux" rel="category tag">菜鸟Linux笔记</a> 标签:<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/debian9" rel="tag">debian9</a>、<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/mysql-server-5-7" rel="tag">mysql-server-5.7</a> 发表回复

ufw防火墙详细设置

1.安装
sudo apt-get install ufw

2.启用
sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw default deny

运行以上两条命令后,开启了防火墙,并在系统启动时自动开启。关闭所有外部对本机的访问,但本机访问外部正常。

3.开启/禁用
sudo ufw allow|deny [service]

打开或关闭某个端口,例如:
sudo ufw allow smtp 允许所有的外部IP访问本机的25/tcp (smtp)端口
sudo ufw allow 22/tcp 允许所有的外部IP访问本机的22/tcp (ssh)端口
sudo ufw allow 53 允许外部访问53端口(tcp/udp)
sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.100 允许此IP访问所有的本机端口
sudo ufw allow proto udp 192.168.0.1 port 53 to 192.168.0.2 port 53
sudo ufw deny smtp 禁止外部访问smtp服务
sudo ufw delete allow smtp 删除上面建立的某条规则

4.查看防火墙状态
sudo ufw status

一般用户,只需如下设置:
sudo apt-get install ufw
sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw default deny

以上三条命令已经足够安全了,如果你需要开放某些服务,再使用sudo ufw allow开启。

开启/关闭防火墙 (默认设置是’disable’)
sudo ufw enable|disable

转换日志状态
sudo ufw logging on|off

设置默认策略 (比如 “mostly open” vs “mostly closed”)

sudo ufw default allow|deny

许可或者屏蔽端口 (可以在“status” 中查看到服务列表)。可以用“协议:端口”的方式指定一个存在于/etc/services中的服务

名称,也可以通过包的meta-data。 ‘allow’ 参数将把条目加入 /etc/ufw/maps ,而 ‘deny’ 则相反。基本语法如下:
sudo ufw allow|deny [service]

显示防火墙和端口的侦听状态,参见 /var/lib/ufw/maps。括号中的数字将不会被显示出来。
sudo ufw status

UFW 使用范例:

允许 53 端口
$ sudo ufw allow 53

禁用 53 端口
$ sudo ufw delete allow 53

允许 80 端口
$ sudo ufw allow 80/tcp

禁用 80 端口
$ sudo ufw delete allow 80/tcp

允许 smtp 端口
$ sudo ufw allow smtp

删除 smtp 端口的许可
$ sudo ufw delete allow smtp

允许某特定 IP
$ sudo ufw allow from 192.168.254.254

删除上面的规则
$ sudo ufw delete allow from 192.168.254.254

5、开启/禁用相应端口或服务(举例说明)

sudo ufw allow 80 允许外部访问本机80端口
sudo ufw delete allow 80 禁止外部访问本机80 端口
sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.1 允许此IP访问所有的本机端口
sudo ufw deny smtp 禁止外部访问smtp服务
sudo ufw delete allow smtp 删除上面建立的某条规则
sudo ufw deny proto tcp from 10.0.0.0/8 to 192.168.0.1 port 要拒绝所有的流量从TCP的10.0.0.0/8 到端口22的地址192.168.0.1

可以允许所有RFC1918网络(局域网/无线局域网的)访问这个主机(/8,/16,/12是一种网络分级):

sudo ufw allow from 10.0.0.0/8
sudo ufw allow from 172.16.0.0/12
sudo ufw allow from 192.168.0.0/16

6、更详细的说明
[]是代表可选内容。可能需要root权限,如无法运行,请使用 sudo ufw……的命令结构。“”中的内容不能照抄,要按需要更改。

ufw [–dry-run] enable|disable|reload
命令[–试运行]激活|关闭|重新载入

ufw [–dry-run] default allow|deny|reject [incoming|outgoing]
命令[–试运行]默认 允许|阻止|拒绝 [访问本机的规则|向外访问的规则]

注:reject让访问者知道数据被拒绝(回馈拒绝信息)。deny则直接丢弃访问数据,访问者不知道是访问被拒绝还是不存在该主机。

ufw [–dry-run] logging on|off|LEVEL
命令[–试运行]日志 开启|关闭|“级别”

ufw [–dry-run] reset
命令[–试运行]复位

ufw [–dry-run] status [verbose|numbered]
命令[–试运行]状态 [详细|被编号的规则]

ufw [–dry-run] show REPORT
命令[–试运行]显示 “报告类型”

ufw [–dry-run] [delete] [insert NUM] allow|deny|reject|limit in|out PORT[/protocol]
命令[–试运行][删除] [插到“x号规则”之前] 允许|阻止|拒绝|限制 [进|出] [记录新连接|记录所有数据包] “端口” [/“协议”]

ufw [–dry-run] [delete] [insert NUM] allow|deny|reject|limit [in|out on INTERFACE] [log|log-all] [proto protocol] [from ADDRESS [port PORT]] [to ADDRESS [port PORT]]
命令 [–试运行][删除][插到x号规则之前] 允许|阻止|拒绝|限制 [进|出 基于“什么网络设备”] [协议 “协议”] [来源 “地址” [端口 “端口”]] [目标 “地址” [端口 “端口”]]

ufw [–dry-run] delete NUM
命令[–试运行] 删除 “第X号规则”

ufw [–dry-run] app list|info|default|update
命令 [–试运行] 程序 清单|信息|默认|更新

参数

–version
显示程序版本号

-h , –help
显示帮助信息

–dry-run
不实际运行,只是把涉及的更改显示出来。

enable
激活防火墙,开机时自动启动

disable
关闭防火墙,开机时不启动

reload
重新载入防火墙

default allow|deny|reject 方向
方向是指:向内(incoming)|向外(outgoing)。如果更改了默认策略,一些已经存在的规则可能需要手动修改。更多内容看“规则示例”一节。

logging on|off|“级别”
切换日志状态。日志记录包使用的是系统日志。“级别”有好几个,默认是低级(low)。详细内容看“日志”一节。

reset [–force]
关闭防火墙,并复位至初始安装状态。如果使用–force选项,则忽略确认提示。

status
显示防火墙的状态和已经设定的规则。使用status verbose显示更详细的信息。‘anywhere’与‘any’、‘0.0.0.0/0’一个意思。

show “报告类型”
显示防火墙运行信息。详细内容看“报告类型”

limit “规则”
此命令目前只能用于IPv4。还不支持IPv6.

规则示例

  • 规则可以简写也可以完整表达。简写的规则只能指定端口和(或)协议被允许或阻止。默认是访问本机的规则(incoming)。例如:

ufw allow 53
允许其它机子访问本机53端口,协议包含tcp和udp。

  • 如果要控制协议,只要加入“/协议”在端口后面就行了。例如:

ufw allow 25/tcp
允许其它机子使用tcp协议访问25端口。

  • UFW也可以检查 /etc/services文件,明白服务的名字及对应的端口和协议。我们使用服务的名称即可。

ufw allow smtp

  • UFW同时支持出入口过滤。用户可以使用in或out来指定向内还是向外。如果未指定,默认是in。例如:

ufw allow in http
ufw reject out smtp
ufw deny out to 192.168.1.1
阻止向192.168.1.1发送信息

  • 用户也可使用完整的规则来指定来源与目的地,还有端口。书写规则基于OpenBSD PF。举例:

ufw deny proto tcp to any port 80
阻止本机用tcp协议在80端口发数据
ufw deny proto tcp from 10.0.0.0/8 to 192.168.0.1 port 25
This will deny all traffic from the RFC1918 Class A network to tcp port 25 with the address 192.168.0.1.(这条命令目前无法翻译 from 和 to的关系,希望后来者更改)

  • ufw也可以使用IPv6协议。但要事先在/etc/default/ufw 中设定IPv6为启动状态。举例:

ufw deny proto tcp from 2001:db8::/32 to any port 25
阻止IPv6为2001:db8::/32类型的地址,连接本机25端口

  • ufw可以连续例举端口号。端口号间必须使用逗号或分号,不能使用空格。“输入端口号”字符数最多不能超过15过(8080:8090算两个字符)。比如允许80,443,8080~8090这几个端口接受tcp传入连接。

ufw allow proto tcp from any to any port 80,443,8080:8090
此例,“输入端口号”字符数为4个。

  • ufw可以对连接数率进行限制,以防范暴力登录攻击。如果同一个IP地址在30秒之内进行了6次及6次以上的连接,ufw将阻止(deny)该连接。可以查看更多信息。

ufw limit ssh/tcp

  • 当然有些时候我们想让访问者知道他的访问被拒绝了,而不是保持沉默让他不知道哪出了问题。就使用reject代替deny

ufw reject auth

  • 默认情况下ufw的所有规则针对所有网络设备(比如网卡1,网卡2,无线网卡1,虚拟网卡1……)。但是我们可以特别指定,某规则在什么网络设备上生效。注意只能使用设备号,不能用别名。比如有线网卡:eth0(你可以使用ifconfig命令查看你现有的网络设备)

ufw allow in on eth0 to any port 80 proto tcp

  • 要删除规则,只要在命令中加入delete就行了。比如:

ufw deny 80/tcp
要删除这条命令建立的规则,使用:
ufw delete deny 80/tcp

当然,也可以使用规则号来进行删除。比如要第3号规则
ufw delete 3

注意,如果你开启IPv6功能。要同时删除IPv4和IPv6的规则(比如:ufw allow 22/tcp),如果用规则号的方式删除可能只删除了一个。

  • 显示第几号规则,可以使用这样的命令

ufw status numbered(也就是规则号)

  • 日志功能。如果使用log将记录所有符合规则的新连接,如果使用log-all将记录所有符合规则的数据包。例如,要允许并记录shh(22/tcp)上的新连接:

ufw allow log 22/tcp

更多内容看“日志”一节

特殊例子: 允许RFC1918网络结构访问本机:

ufw allow from 10.0.0.0/8
ufw allow from 172.16.0.0/12
ufw allow from 192.168.0.0/16

最后一条经过测试,范围大约是192.168.0.0~192.168.225.225。当然,涉及很多专业知识,希望有人补充。

远程管理
此章节还未被编辑

应用程序集成管理

  • ufw能从 /etc/ufw/applications.d. 中读取应用程序清单。你可以使用命令查看:

ufw app list

  • 大家可以使用应用程序名字来增加规则。比如

ufw allow
ufw allow CUPS
ufw allow from 192.168.0.0/16 to any app
注意,端口号已经被程序名所对应的策略所包括,不要再重新列举端口号。

  • 查看程序名所对应的策略内容,命令:

ufw app into
注意:程序名字是清单上有的才行。程序名字改用用all,可以看全部策略。

  • 如果你编辑或者增加了程序清单,你可使用此命令更新防火墙:

ufw app update
程序名字改用用all,则更新整个清单。

  • 更新清单同时增加规则可以使用如下命令:

ufw app update –add-new

注意:update –add-new参数的行为由此命令配置:
ufw app default skip|allow|deny
默认是skip,也就是没有设定。

警告:如果程序规则设定为default allow ,将会引起很大的风险。请三思而后行!

日志
ufw支持许多日志级别。默认是低级(low),用户也可以自己指定:

ufw logging on|off|low|medium|high|full

  • off 就是关闭日志
  • low 记录与默认策略冲突的封装数据包(记录速度被限制)。记录与规则符合的数据包(没有要求关闭记录的)
  • medium 记录与默认策略冲突的数据包(包括被规则允许的)、无效数据包、所有新连接。记录速度被限制。
  • high 同medium,只是没有记录速度限制。附加记录所有数据包(有记录速度限制)。
  • full 与high等同,只是取消记录限制。

medium级别及更上级会记录许多内容,有可能短时间内撑爆你的硬盘。特别是用在服务器一类的机器上。

on与off只是起开关作用,不代表级别。

张贴在<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/category/linux" rel="category tag">菜鸟Linux笔记</a> 标签:<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/linux-%e9%98%b2%e7%81%ab%e5%a2%99" rel="tag">linux 防火墙</a>、<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/ufw" rel="tag">ufw</a> 发表回复

解决CDR9在WIN10保存完整对话框

找到CDR9的安装路径,比如:C:Program Files (x86)CorelGraphics9Programs里的drawintl.dll拖进PE 
Explorer(软件直接在网上找个绿色版本即可)
点视图-资源-对话框,找到1045和1046,两个一个是保存一个是另存为,双击任一即弹出对话框,在保存对话框处双击,然后将显示的小虚线框拖动到合适的位置即可。

张贴在<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/category/computer-internet" rel="category tag">电脑网络</a> 标签:<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/coreldraw-9" rel="tag">CorelDRAW 9</a>、<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/windown10" rel="tag">windown10</a>、<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/windows7" rel="tag">Windows7</a> 发表回复

debian 8 apt

echo “deb [check-valid-until=no] http://cdn-fastly.deb.debian.org/debian jessie main” > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jessie.list
echo “deb [check-valid-until=no] http://archive.debian.org/debian jessie-backports mainn” > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jessie-backports.list
echo “deb [check-valid-until=no] http://archive.debian.org/debian jessie-backports-sloppy main” > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jessie-backports.list
sed -i ‘/deb http://deb.debian.org/debian jessie-updates main/d’ /etc/apt/sources.list
apt-get -o Acquire::Check-Valid-Until=false update

张贴在<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/category/linux" rel="category tag">菜鸟Linux笔记</a> 标签:<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/debian-8-apt" rel="tag">debian 8 apt</a> 发表回复

[Howto] SAMBA and Windows XP

SAMBA Server (version 4.6.7)
smb.conf

server min protocol = NT1

Windows XP regedit.exe

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\lmcompatibilitylevel = 3
张贴在<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/category/computer-internet" rel="category tag">电脑网络</a> 标签:<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/samba" rel="tag">Samba</a>、<a href="http://www.shaogroup.com/tag/windows-xp" rel="tag">Windows XP</a> 发表回复
CCTV-3在线