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FreeBSD 8.1桌面安装Gnome2.3, 并使用ibus中文输入法

*BSD shaobo 52次浏览 5080字 0个评论

光盘安装FreeBSD 8.1, Xorg, 和Gnome 2.3:

 

FreeBSD 8.1 DVD, 安装.

distribution选的all.

pakages选的Xorg meta port, 和 Gnome 2 meta port

50分钟左右安装完成

 

----------------------------------------------

设置网卡

 

1. ifconfig 找到网卡

2. 在/etc/rc.conf里面加

ifconfig_re0="inet 本机地址 netmask 掩码地址" #用你的网卡代替re0

defaultrouter=" 网关地址"

3. 在/etc/resolv.conf里面加

nameserver DNS的地址

 

重启动, 网络ok

 

---------------------------------------------------

设置Xorg和Gnome

 

1./etc/rc.conf里面加

hald_enable="YES"

dbus_enable="YES"

这样X11可以找到键盘鼠标

2. 运行

Xorg -configure

$home里面生成一个xorg.conf.new文件

3.测试Xorg -config xorg.conf.new -retro

会看到一个黑白格的桌面和中央一个X

用Ctrl-Alt- F1调出tty0, 按Ctrl-C退出X测试

4. 编辑xorg.conf.new文件, 在"Section Screen"区里, 加上DefaultDepth 24; 在SubSection Display区里, 加上Modes 屏幕宽x屏幕高. 像下面这样:

Section "Screen"

Identifier "Screen0"

Device "Card0"

Monitor "Monitor0"

DefaultDepth 24

SubSection "Display"

Viewport 0 0

Depth 24

Modes "1024x768"

EndSubSection

EndSection

5. copy编辑好的conf文件到指定位置:

cp xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf

 

X11 设置完成, 下面是Gnome设置

 

6. 如果之前没有使用其他的display manager, 这一步很简单:

在~/.xinitrc文件里加入:

/usr/local/bin/gnome-session

startx

gnome桌面就启动了

 

------------------------------------------------

安装文泉驿中文字体:

# whereis wqy

wqy: /usr/ports/x11-fonts/wqy

# cd /usr/ports/x11-fonts/wqy

# make install clean

15分钟左右ok

 

让X系统启动时载入字体。

编辑/etc/X11/xorg.conf

在Section "Files"里面加一行,FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/wqy"像下面这样

Section "Files"

ModulePath "/usr/local/lib/xorg/modules"

FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/misc/"

FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/"

FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/OTF"

FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/"

FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/"

FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/"

FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/wqy"

EndSection

 

--------------------------------------------------------------

安装ibus输入法

 

方法一:

pkg_add -r zh-ibus-pinyin

自动安装ibus和拼音输入法

 

方法二:

1 # pkg_add -r ibus 安装ibus

2 如下安装拼音输入法

# whereis ibus-pinyin

# ibus-pinyin: /usr/ports/chinese/ibus-pinyin

# cd /usr/ports/chinese/ibus-pinyin

# make install clean

需时约30分钟

 

设置启用ibus:

1.设置locale为UTF-8字符集

如果用csh或者tcsh, .cshrc 中增加

setenv LANG zh_CN.UTF-8

#桌面界面语言为中文 [如果remark掉,则桌面菜单等仍为英文]

setenv LC_CTYPE zh_CN.UTF-8

#locale的character type为UTF-8中文. [如果remark掉,将无法调出中文输入法]

setenv LC_ALL zh_CN.UTF-8

#暂不清楚,推测是locale各项设置改为中文 [remark掉无影响]

 

如果用sh, .shrc中增加 [如果用bash, .bashrc中增加]

export LANG=zh_CN.UTF-8

#桌面界面语言为中文 [如果remark掉,则桌面菜单等仍为英文]

export LC_ALL=zh_CN.UTF-8

#locale的character type为UTF-8中文. [如果remark掉,将无法调出中文输入法]

export LC_ALL=zh_CN.UTF-8

#暂不清楚,推测是locale各项设置改为中文 [remark掉无影响]

 

2.让ibus daemon随X一起启动

.xinitrc中增加

XIM=ibus

GTK_IM_MODULE=ibus

QT_IM_MODULE=xim

XMODIFIERS='@im=ibus'

XIM_PROGRAM="ibus-daemon"

XIM_ARGS="--daemonize --xim"

 

[参考一里有下面的说明, 这部分干啥用的?没照做也ok了]

.profile中添加

export LC_ALL=zh_CN.UTF-8

 

重启, startx, 在panel右击ibus图标->preferences->input method->select an input method->Chinese->pinyin, 点击Add, 点close.

 

ibus设置ok了.

 

参考一: http://alexshots.blog.163.com/blog/static/112112020108284599116/ [freebsd 8.1 如何安装中文拼音输入法ibus-pinyin]

 

参考二: ibus安装后的提示信息[after pkd_add -r ibus]:

 

ibus installation finished. To use ibus, please do the following:

 

If you are using bash, please add following lines to your $HOME/.bashrc:

 

export XIM=ibus

export GTK_IM_MODULE=ibus

export QT_IM_MODULE=xim

export XMODIFIERS=@im=ibus

export XIM_PROGRAM="ibus-daemon"

export XIM_ARGS="--daemonize --xim"

 

If you are using tcsh, please add following lines to your $HOME/.cshrc:

 

setenv XIM ibus

setenv GTK_IM_MODULE ibus

setenv QT_IM_MODULE xim

setenv XMODIFIERS @im=ibus

setenv XIM_PROGRAM ibus-daemon

setenv XIM_ARGS "--daemonize --xim"

 

If you are using KDE4, you may create a shell script in $HOME/.kde4/env,

and add following lines:

 

#!/bin/sh

export XIM=ibus

export GTK_IM_MODULE=ibus

export QT_IM_MODULE=xim

export XMODIFIERS=@im=ibus

export XIM_PROGRAM="ibus-daemon"

export XIM_ARGS="--daemonize --xim"

 

Following input methods/engines are available in ports:

 

chinese/ibus-chewing Chewing engine for IBus

chinese/ibus-pinyin The PinYin input method

japanese/ibus-anthy Anthy engine for IBus

japanese/ibus-skk SKK engine for IBus

textproc/ibus-kmfl KMFL IMEngine for IBus framework

textproc/ibus-m17n The m17n IMEngine for IBus framework

textproc/ibus-table Table based IM framework for IBus

 

and QT4 input method module, textproc/ibus-qt.

 

If ibus cannot start or the panel does not appear, please ensure

that you are using up-to-date python.

There's a bug in python 2.5, which may prevent the panel from appearing.

 

------------------------------------

声卡驱动安装

 

1.先安装meta驱动试验:

# kldload snd_driver

 

检查是否有声音

# cat anyfile > /dev/dsp 有声音

 

然后查看驱动加载情况:

#cat /dev/sndstat

FreeBSD Audio Driver (newpcm: 32bit 2009061500/i386)

Installed devices:

pcm0: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #0 Analog> (play/rec) default

pcm1: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #1 Analog> (play/rec)

pcm2: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #2 Digital> (play)

pcm3: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #3 Digital> (play)

pcm4: <HDA ATI RS690/780 HDMI PCM #0 HDMI> (play)

 

一般会显示出driver名字, 例如snd_ich. 但这里没有,好在根据HDA猜到了时snd_hda, 并且在FreeBSD说明里找到了snd_hda支持此Realtek ALC889

2. 修改 /boot/loader.conf

snd_hda_load="YES"

 

重启动无声, 然后

#cat /dev/sndstat

FreeBSD Audio Driver (newpcm: 32bit 2009061500/i386)

Installed devices:

pcm0: <HDA ATI RS690/780 HDMI PCM #0 HDMI> (play) default

pcm1: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #0 Analog> (play/rec)

pcm2: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #1 Analog> (play/rec)

pcm3: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #2 Digital> (play)

pcm4: <HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #3 Digital> (play)

发现此时的pcm0跟Generic driver时不同了,变成了HDMI输出,由于音箱不在HDMI上,因此判断应该将default输出指定到现在的pcm1上

 

# sysctl hw.snd.default_unit=1

hw.snd.default_unit: 0 -> 1

 

检查是否有声音

# cat anyfile > /dev/dsp 有声音

 

3. 将此设置放到 /etc/sysctl.conf

hw.snd.default_unit=1

重启动ok


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